Principles and model of training doctors of philosophy (PhD) at the university
Salzburg principles of organization of doctoral programs
1. The main component of training degree seekers is the promotion of knowledge through original research.
2. Universities as institutions should take responsibility for ensuring that the doctoral programs they offer develop in students the ability to solve new problems and expand their career opportunities.
3. Wide diversification of doctoral programs in Europe, including joint programs, which is a significant advantage that needs to be supported by quality assurance procedures and sound practices.
4. Postgraduate students should be considered professionals (novice researchers) who have comparable rights and make a key contribution to the generation of new knowledge.
5. The organization of counseling and evaluation of each graduate student should be based on a transparent agreement (contract), which should enshrine the joint responsibility of graduate students, supervisors and institutions.
6. Doctoral programs should aim to reach a critical mass and apply the various innovative practices implemented in European universities, bearing in mind that different practices may be relevant in different contexts, in particular in larger and smaller European countries.
7. Doctoral programs must be of sufficient duration (usually three to four years in full-time study).
8. Formation of innovative structures that will provide interdisciplinary training and development of universal competencies.
9. Doctoral programs should offer geographical, interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary mobility, as well as international cooperation in the framework of cooperation between universities and other partners.
10. The development of quality doctoral programs and their successful completion by graduate students requires adequate and sustainable funding.
EUROPEAN CHARTER OF RESEARCHERS
AND THE CODE OF EMPLOYMENT OF SCIENTISTS
The European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Employment of Researchers are a tool to enhance the development and maintenance of a favorable research environment in universities, as well as the culture of scientific work.
The European Charter for Researchers is a set of general principles and requirements that define the functions, responsibilities and rights of researchers, as well as employers and / or sponsors of researchers. The purpose of the Charter is to ensure that the nature of the relationship between researchers and employers or sponsors contributes to the successful creation, transfer, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology, as well as the career development of researchers.
General principles and requirements of the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Employment of Researchers:
Integrity and ethics of research are important areas of activity in scientific institutions. Public awareness of academic ethics and integrity in research is growing, and new methods raise new ethical issues: big data raises concerns about confidentiality and data management; and the use of embryonic stem cells can provoke religious or moral protest.
Because research influences policy decisions, drug treatment, and technology, the general public is concerned about the ethics of their application in public practice.
Researchers are under enormous social pressure on their publishing activity, and this may lead to the need for them to choose one of the alternatives: on the one hand, to obtain rapid results of scientific work, and on the other - to apply scientific methods and obtain socially significant results. These include, for example, the use of small samples, the selective use of data and the use of the "smallest published block". Such practices are unproductive for reliable research and the development of a correct research culture of doctoral students. Moreover, they jeopardize public confidence in universities. Universities need to be able to demonstrate that they respond to societal concerns about research ethics, from scientific methods to privacy and animal welfare issues.
Ensuring awareness of the proper conduct of doctoral research is important in developing a general research principle.
This awareness depends on the daily practices that candidates are exposed to in their research environment. Awareness of ethical issues related to specific techniques or situations must be embedded in daily practice and constantly evolving. The willingness and consensus of all stakeholders to adhere to high standards and best practices is critical if institutions are to develop a sound research culture. Research integrity must be developed in research environments, and institutional leaders must ensure clarity and transparency of codes of conduct.
Universities must take this into account in their doctoral education policy. Applicants must have knowledge of national and international codes of ethics and integrity. They must be aware of the ethical issues associated with their discipline and be able to anticipate such issues in their own research.
This requires interaction between different initiatives: formal training and awareness-raising for doctoral students, the appointment of an ombudsman, identification of best practices and clarity on what is unacceptable, as well as awareness of international and intercultural differences.
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION FOR RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT
Universities in particular and society as a whole face the challenges of digitalisation. Big data, open research - including the use of social media - and online learning offer new opportunities for researchers to interact.
Students and PhD students are in a world where information exchange and interaction take place easily over the Internet. The potential for information exchange has changed research and created opportunities for new ways of collaboration, often referred to as open science or open research.
Such practices include data exchange before publication, open access to publications. New generations of candidates will become increasingly familiar with blended learning models with online content.
Institutes cannot directly control the use of digital tools of doctoral candidates, but new opportunities for academic dialogue and self-management of online learning will increase the competence and independence of doctoral graduates when the appropriate base is created.
Candidates who use digital opportunities, research supervisors, as well as university management can learn from their own practice and experience. However, universities need to develop a coherent policy and infrastructure for online sharing and doctoral training that can be used in a coherent and responsible manner across the institution. Such policies should include technical, legal and ethical aspects of open research and open education, including clear guidelines for the recognition of online courses. Supervisors have requirements for information on open research, as well as clear incentives to follow the institutional policy of publication, especially on the use of open access repositories. As in all cases, there should be a constant dialogue in the institution to ensure the relevance and effectiveness of institutional policy.
Last redaction: 18.07.20